There are three basic processes for implementing strategy: rational planning, emergent strategy and visionary command. People do not agree on the best way to make strategy. Whatever they do decide to do, it is important that the method fits both the internal and external environment.
Strategies that do not match up with company culture will not work. Equally, those that do not fit the outside world, be it a complex or turbulent marketplace, will also fail.
Companies cannot carry out a formal, rational planning process in a turbulent marketplace, for example. Firms need to make sure strategy-making is congruent with their internal ('microcongruent') and external ('macrocongruent') environments, with the combined result being 'biocongruence'. Every company is unique and each will require a different set of congruencies to make it work.
Strategy-making: what works is what fits,
Brian D Smith,
European Business Forum, Issue 28, Spring 2007