Software design and development industry might seem like a naturally "borderless" industry. Multinational developers now increasingly outsource development and maintenance to overseas contractors, and many have also offshored a substantial portion of their more secondary R&D operations. INSEAD [HAYHURST David] professor[HAYHURST David] s Bruce Kogut and Anca Metiu have attempted to study the limitations of the outsourcing of such intellectual work -- an issue that is provoking increasingly intense debate in wealthier countries concerned with jobs in yet another major industry disappearing, probably permanently, overseas.
The authors propose that "the software industry's digital, and at the same time modular and systemic character, makes it a perfect setting for the study of the international division of intellectual labour". After interviewing several leading software and client companies, and conducting extensive field research, Kogut and Metiu conclude that there is now little doubt that increasingly sophisticated IT technology, together with long-term pricing and other considerations, are fuelling the desire for many software multinationals to intensify outsourcing. The authors argue, however, that the most important factor that differentiates onshore from offshore work in much software development is what they term the "saliency of creativity."
This critical dimension is, in the authors' view, too frequently overlooked by both software developers and scholars concerned with the distribution of intelligence environments. Instead, their emphasis tends to centre too narrowly on the sharing and transfer of knowledge, often ignoring the fact that "transfer occurs subsequent to, or concomitant with, innovation and creativity". Metiu and Kogut indicate many less orthodox concepts of innovation espoused by other academics that highlight the importance of interactivity in the generation of new knowledge, and provide an extensive list of recent empirical research relating to the types of labour for which co-location and face-to-face interactions are often essential.