The gender gap is narrower in middle-income countries, such as Venezuela and Thailand, particularly for early-stage entrepreneurial activity, while high-income countries have the lowest levels of women's early-stage entrepreneurship.
Women, like men, are most likely to be driven to become entrepreneurs out of opportunity rather than necessity. However, in middle-income countries necessity rises in importance.
Middle-income economy women also express greater fear of failure than men and their businesses are less likely to survive. Women are most likely to be involved in consumer-oriented businesses and, as with men's businesses, most show no or only limited potential for new jobs creation.
The study also finds a general correlation between women already being in a job and becoming an entrepreneur.
Report on women and entrepreneurship 2005
Maria Minniti, Elaine Allen and Nan Langowitz
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, March 2006
Review by Steve Lodge.