Sickly sweet, Red Bull doesn't even contain alcohol to compensate; instead, it offers caffeine, glucuronolactone and taurine. No, this last ingredient doesn't come from bulls' testicles but is a component of human bile. If that isn't off-putting enough, Red Bull is banned in France and Denmark, and classed as medicinal in Norway, even before it's mixed in the glass with vodka.
In the '80s, Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz discovered the jet-lag curing qualities of the Thai drink Krating Daeng ('red water buffalo').
Despite disastrous consumer tests in the UK, he launched a carbonated version in 1987, buoyed by expensive guerrilla marketing. This brought a $1 million deficit in his first year of production, but caused a stir among extreme sports junkies and clubbers who, driven by its anti-mainstream image, liked to 'have it large' on its caffeine kick. Red Bull generated sales of $2 billion worldwide in 2004.
In the US, Pepsi and Coke responded with their own 'performance enhancing' drinks, enlarging their home market to $1.7 billion. And as its initial fans swap the bungee chord for apron strings, Red Bull has had to grow up - buying a Formula 1 team and developing a herbal tea. As its market share drops - from 75% in the US in 1998 to 47% now - the brand will need strong wings to stay ahead.